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What did you find most interesting in this module? Do you think World War I was destined to happen?

Chapter 22
Shadows over the
Pacific: East Asia
Under Challenge
The Decline of the Qing:
Focus Question
▪ Why did the Qing Dynasty decline and
ultimately collapse, and what role did the
Western powers play in this process?
The Decline of the Qing
(Part 1)
▪ Opium and rebellion
▪ Opium to China in British ships
▪ The Qing court appointed Lin Zexu who imposed
penalties on smokers, arrested dealers, seized
▪ Lin blockaded the foreign factory area in Canton
▪ British forced Qing to open China to foreign trade
▪ The Opium War
▪ Superiority of British firepower and military tactics
▪ 1842: Chinese agreed to British terms in Treaty of
Nanjing; opium trade continued unabated
The Decline of the Qing
(Part 2)
▪ The Taiping Rebellion
▪ Internal economic problems led to a major
peasant revolt
▪ Suppressed in 1864; more than 25 million people
▪ Efforts at reform
▪ New policy called self-strengthening
▪ Western technology adopted while Confucian
principles and institutions maintained intact – “East
for Essence, West for Practical Use”
The Decline of the Qing
(Part 3)
▪ The climax of imperialism
▪ Opening the door
▪ Open Door Notes: U.S. proposed equal access to
the China market for all states; would guarantee
the territorial and administrative integrity of the
Chinese Empire
▪ The Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers attacked foreign
residents; besieged the foreign quarter in Beijing
▪ An international force suppressed the uprising
The Decline of the Qing
(Part 4)
▪ The collapse of the old order
▪ The rise of Sun Yat-sen
▪ “Three people’s principles” of nationalism
▪ The Revolution of 1911
▪ Sun’s followers launched an uprising
▪ Less a revolution than a collapse of the old order
Chronology – China in the Era of Imperialism
Events of China in the Era of Imperialism Dates
Lord Macartney’s mission to China 1793
Opium War 1839–1842
Taiping rebels seize Nanjing 1853
Taiping Rebellion suppressed 1864
Cixi becomes regent for nephew, the Guangxu emperor 1878
Sino-Japanese War 1894–1895
One Hundred Days reform 1898
Open Door Policy 1899
Boxer Rebellion 1900
Commission to study constitution formed 1905
Deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu emperor 1908
Revolution in China 1911
Chinese Society in Transition:
Focus Question
▪ What political, economic, and social
reforms were instituted by the Qing
Dynasty during its final decades, and why
were they not more successful in reversing
the decline of Qing rule?
Chinese Society in Transition
(Part 1)
▪ The economy: The drag of tradition
▪ Industrial production based almost entirely on
traditional methods
▪ Inefficiency and mismanagement
▪ Qing officials overwhelmed by external
pressure and internal strife
▪ The impact of imperialism
▪ Serious distortions in the local economy
▪ Accelerated development in some ways
▪ Hindered by thwarting the rise of a local sector
Chinese Society in Transition
(Part 2)
▪ Daily life in Qing China
▪ Confucian institutions and norms declined
▪ Western-style education more desired
▪ A new generation with little knowledge of or
respect for the past
▪ Changing roles for women
▪ Status of women was in transition
▪ Women sought employment in factories
▪ Educational opportunities for women were
available in Christian missionaries
A Rich Country and a Strong State:
The Rise of Modern Japan – Focus
▪ To what degree was the Meiji Restoration
a “revolution,” and to what extent did it
succeed in transforming Japan?
A Rich Country and a Strong State:
The Rise of Modern Japan (Part 1)
▪ Policy of sakoku: closed country
▪ Opening to the world
▪ Treaty of Kanagawa
▪ The “Sat-Cho” alliance attacked the shogun’s
palace and restored authority of the emperor
▪ The Meiji restoration
▪ The transformation of Japanese politics
▪ Hereditary privileges abolished to undercut the
power of the daimyo
▪ Imperial rule dominated by the genro
A Rich Country and a Strong State:
The Rise of Modern Japan (Part 2)
▪ The Meiji Constitution of 1890
▪ Vested authority in the executive branch
▪ Kokutai: Core ideology of the state; Japanese
system based on emperor’s supreme authority
▪ Meiji economics
▪ New system of landownership; new land tax
▪ Promotion of industry
▪ Intimate relationship between government and
private business
A Rich Country and a Strong State:
The Rise of Modern Japan (Part 3)
▪ Building a modern social structure
▪ Tokugawa era: The “three obediences”
▪ Child to father, wife to husband, and widow to son
▪ Meiji reformers destroyed much of the
traditional social system
▪ An imperial army based on universal conscription
▪ Universal education included technical subjects
▪ Women given an opportunity to get an education
▪ Western ideas and fashions the rage
A Rich Country and a Strong State:
The Rise of Modern Japan (Part 4)
▪ Traditional values and women’s rights
▪ Traditional values given a firm legal basis
▪ Constitution of 1890 restricted franchise to males
▪ Civil Code of 1898 deemphasized individual rights
▪ Young girls went en masse to work in textile
mills; Japan world’s leading exporter of silk
▪ Calls for women’s rights increasingly heard
A Rich Country and a Strong State:
The Rise of Modern Japan (Part 5)
▪ Joining the Imperialist Club
▪ Chinese forced to cede Taiwan
▪ Rivalry with Russia – Japanese warships
sank Russian fleet off coast of Korea
▪ Korea annexed in 1908
▪ Japanese culture in transition
▪ Western artistic and architectural techniques
and styles adopted on a massive scale
▪ Cultural exchange also went from East to West
▪ Japanese art underwent a dynamic resurgence
A Rich Country and a Strong State:
The Rise of Modern Japan (Part 6)
▪ The Meiji Restoration: A revolution from
▪ What explains Japanese uniqueness?
▪ Japan an island nation, ethnically and linguistically
homogeneous, had never been conquered
▪ The emperor, the living symbol of the nation,
adopted change
▪ Japanese valued practicality and military
▪ Japan was ripe for change
Chronology – Japan and Korea in the Era of Imperialism
Events of Japan and Korea in the Era of Imperialism Dates
Commodore Perry arrives in Tokyo Bay 1853
Townsend Harris Treaty 1858
Fall of Tokugawa Shogunate 1868
U.S. fleet fails to open Korea 1871
Feudal titles abolished in Japan 1871
Japanese imperial army formed 1871
Meiji Constitution adopted 1890
Imperial Rescript on Education 1890
Treaty of Shimonoseki awards Taiwan to Japan 1895
Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905
Korea annexed by Japan 1908

Chapter 23
The Beginning of the
Crisis: War and
The Road to World War I:
Focus Question
▪ What were the long-range and immediate
causes of World War I?
The Road to World War I
(Part 1)
▪ Nationalism and internal dissent
▪ Division of Europe into two loose alliances
▪ National aspirations of ethnic groups
▪ Socialist labor movements
▪ Militarism
▪ Conscription: Obligatory military service
▪ Militarism – more than just large armies
▪ As armies grew, so did the influence of military
The Road to World War I
(Part 2)
▪ The outbreak of war: Summer 1914
▪ The assassination of Francis Ferdinand: A
“Blank Check”?
▪ Emperor William II: “blank check” assurance that
Austria-Hungary could rely on “full support”
▪ Declarations of War
▪ Austria declared war on Serbia
▪ The Schlieffen Plan called for a minimal troop
deployment against; most of the German army
would make a rapid invasion of France
▪ By August 4, all the great powers of Europe at war
The Great War:
Focus Questions
▪ Why did the course of World War I turn out
to be so different from what the
belligerents had expected?
▪ How did World War I affect the
belligerents’ governmental and political
institutions, economic affairs, and social
The Great War
(Part 1)
▪ 1914–1915: Illusions and stalemate
▪ Everyone believed that the war would be over
in a few weeks
▪ The war quickly turned into a stalemate
▪ 1916-1917: The great slaughter
▪ Trench warfare on the western front
▪ Attacks rarely worked; millions sacrificed in search
for the elusive breakthrough
▪ Poison gas produced new forms of injuries
▪ Decomposing bodies present in the trenches
The Great War
(Part 2)
▪ The widening of the war
▪ A global conflict
▪ European powers controlled colonial empires
▪ European war spread to other parts of the world –
Middle East campaigns; battles in Africa
▪ In East Asia and the Pacific, Japan joined the Allies
to seize control of German territories in Asia
The Great War
(Part 3)
▪ Entry of the United States
▪ Naval conflict between Germany and Great
▪ Britain’s naval blockade of Germany
▪ German retaliation: Unrestricted submarine
▪ Brought the United States into the war
▪ United States’ entry a psychological boost for
the Allied Powers
The Great War
(Part 4)
▪ The home front: The impact of total war
▪ Political centralization and economic
▪ Wartime governments expanded powers
▪ Free-market capitalistic systems shelved
▪ Public order and public opinion
▪ Expansion of police powers to stifle internal dissent
▪ Active use of propaganda
▪ Women in the war effort
▪ Assumed jobs not open to them before
Crisis in Russia and the End of the
War: Focus Question
▪ What were the causes of the Russian
Revolution of 1917, and why did the
Bolsheviks prevail in the civil war and gain
control of Russia?
Crisis in Russia and the End of the
War (Part 1)
▪ The Russian Revolution
▪ The March Revolution
▪ Women marched demanding “peace and bread”; a
general strike shut down all the factories
▪ The Duma established a Provisional Government
▪ Soviets: councils of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies
were in opposition
▪ Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution
▪ Bolsheviks dedicated to violent revolution
▪ Promises geared to the needs of the people
▪ Pro-soviet and pro-Bolshevik forces took control
Crisis in Russia and the End of the
War (Part 2)
▪ Civil war
▪ Great opposition to the new regime
▪ Communist (Red) Army fought on many fronts
▪ Policy of war communism ensured regular
supplies for the Red Army
▪ Secret police instituted the Red Terror
▪ Regime transformed Russia into a centralized
state dominated by a single party
Crisis in Russia and the End of the
War (Part 3)
▪ Germany’s victory over Russia
▪ German’s made a grand offensive in the West
▪ Allied counterattack defeated the Germans
▪ German officials created a liberal government
▪ November 11, 1918: German government
agreed to an armistice; war was over
▪ The last year of the war
▪ The casualties of the war
▪ Between 8 and 9 million of soldiers died; untold
numbers of civilians died from injuries or starvation
Chronology – World War I
Events of World War I Dates
Battle of Tannenberg August 26–30, 1914
First Battle of the Marne September 6–10, 1914
Battle of Masurian Lakes September 15, 1914
Battle of Gallipoli begins April 25, 1915
Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary May 23, 1915
Battle of Verdun February 21–December 18, 1916
United States enters the war April 6, 1917
Last German offensive March 21–July 18, 1918
Second Battle of the Marne July 18, 1918
Allied counteroffensive July 18–November 10, 1918
Armistice between Allies and Germany November 11, 1918
Crisis in Russia and the End of the
War (Part 4)
▪ The peace settlement
▪ The Paris Peace Conference
▪ The League of Nations
▪ The Treaty of Versailles
▪ Five separate treaties with the defeated nations
▪ Germany to pay reparations
Crisis in Russia and the End of the
War (Part 5)
▪ The other peace treaties
▪ Redrew the map of eastern Europe
▪ Guided by the principle of self-determination
▪ Imperialist habits of Western nations died
▪ Mandates: system whereby a nation officially
administered a territory on behalf of the
League of Nations
An Uncertain Peace:
Focus Question
▪ What problems did Europe and the United
States face in the 1920s?
An Uncertain Peace
(Part 1)
▪ The search for security
▪ League of Nations not effective in maintaining
peace; could use only economic sanctions
▪ France’s strict enforcement of the Treaty of
▪ Allied Reparations Commission
▪ The Dawes Plan stabilized Germany’s
reparations payments
▪ The Treaty of Locarno guaranteed Germany’s
western borders
An Uncertain Peace
(Part 2)
▪ The Great Depression
▪ Downturn in domestic economic activities and
collapse of the American stock market set the
▪ Unemployed and homeless people filled the
streets throughout the industrial world
▪ Women able to secure low-paying jobs; many men
remained unemployed
▪ Increased government activity in the economy
▪ Renewed interest in Marxist doctrines; fascism
An Uncertain Peace
(Part 3)
▪ The democratic states
▪ Great Britain: Serious economic difficulties
▪ John Maynard Keynes and deficit spending
▪ No French government seemed capable of
solving France’s financial problems
▪ Germany: No outstanding political leaders;
serious economic difficulties
▪ United States: Nation most affected by the
Great Depression
▪ Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal
An Uncertain Peace
(Part 4)
▪ Socialism in Soviet Russia
▪ New Economic Policy (NEP) adopted
▪ Communists created a new state, the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
▪ Lenin’s death inaugurated a power struggle
▪ Ideological divisions underscored by rivalry
between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin
▪ Stalin eliminated the Bolsheviks and
established a dictatorship
In Pursuit of a New Reality: Cultural
and Intellectual Trends – Focus
▪ How did the cultural and intellectual trends
of the post–World War I years reflect the
crises of the time as well as the lingering
effects of the war?
In Pursuit of a New Reality: Cultural
and Intellectual Trends
▪ Nightmares and new visions
▪ Dadaism
▪ Surrealism
▪ Probing the unconscious
▪ “Stream of consciousness” technique
▪ Influence of new psychological theories and
Eastern religions
▪ Mass entertainment


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