of pages
of slides
of work
of paper
0 Undergraduate Writing from scratch Critical thinking Not needed 1

Paper details





What did you find most interesting in this module? How did the artistic movements like Romanticism and Naturalism try to oppose Industrialism? Do you see similar movements in today’s societies?

Chapter 21
The High Tide of
The Spread of Colonial Rule:
Focus Question
▪ What were the causes of the new
imperialism of the nineteenth century, and
how did it differ from European expansion
in earlier periods?
The Spread of Colonial Rule
▪ The motives
▪ The Industrial Revolution
▪ National survival
▪ Theory of Social Darwinism
▪ A moral purpose
▪ The tactics
▪ Extensive control over colonies
▪ Increased competition for colonies led to need
to protect territories from rivals’ attacks
The Colonial System:
Focus Question
▪ What types of administrative systems did
the various colonial powers establish in
their colonies, and how did these systems
reflect the general philosophy of
The Colonial System
(Part 1)
▪ Indirect rule: Cooperation with local
political elites
▪ Direct rule: Elites replaced with officials
from the mother country
▪ The philosophy of colonialism
▪ Justifying colonial rule with Social Darwinism
▪ “Survival of the fittest”
▪ Enabling primitive peoples to adapt to the modern
world; redistributing the wealth of the earth
The Colonial System
(Part 2)
▪ Assimilation and association
▪ Assimilation: Transform colonial societies in
the Western image
▪ Association: Collaboration with local elites
while leaving local traditions alone
India Under the British Raj:
Focus Question
▪ What were some of the major
consequences of British rule in India, and
how did they affect the Indian people?
India Under the British Raj
(Part 1)
▪ Colonial reforms
▪ A relatively honest and efficient government
put in place
▪ Attention given to education
▪ Practice of sati outlawed; British attempted to
end endemic brigandage
▪ Railroads, the telegraph, and postal service

India Under the British Raj
(Part 2)
▪ The cost of colonialism
▪ Introduction of British textiles severely
damaged the local textile industry
▪ Gentry took advantage of the zamindar
system to increase taxes, force peasants to
become tenants
▪ Limited industrialization took place
▪ Lack of capital; advantages given to British imports
▪ Foreign rule had a psychological effect
Colonial Regimes in Southeast
Asia: Focus Question
▪ Which Western countries were most active
in seeking colonial possessions in
Southeast Asia, and what were their
motives in doing so?
Colonial Regimes in Southeast
Asia (Part 1)
▪ “Opportunity in the Orient”: The colonial
takeover in Southeast Asia
▪ The British: Singapore and Burma
▪ The French: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos
▪ The United States: The Philippines
▪ The nature of colonial rule
▪ Democratic reforms
▪ Colonial regimes slow to create democratic
institutions; colonial officials slow to adopt
educational reforms
Colonial Regimes in Southeast
Asia (Part 2)
▪ Economic development
▪ Policy focused on exporting raw materials
▪ Industrial and commercial establishments
owned and managed by Europeans
▪ Colonialism and the countryside
▪ Creation of plantation agriculture
▪ High taxes imposed by colonial governments
▪ Growth of the population
▪ An entrepreneurial class in rural areas
Chronology – Imperialism in Asia
Events of Imperialism in Asia Dates
Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore 1819
British attack lower Burma 1826
British rail network opens in northern India 1853
Sepoy Rebellion 1857
French attack Vietnam 1858
British and French agree to neutralize Thailand 1896
Commodore Dewey defeats Spanish fleet in Manila Bay 1898
French create Indochinese Union 1900
Empire Building in Africa:
Focus Question
▪ What factors were behind the “scramble
for Africa,” and what impact did it have on
the continent?
Empire Building in Africa
(Part 1)
▪ From slavery to “legitimate trade” in Africa
▪ Slave trade declared illegal in Great Britain
and the United States
▪ Slavery left untouched where it already existed
▪ Europeans’ interest in legitimate trade
▪ Export of peanuts, timber, hides, and palm oil from
West Africa; imports of textile goods and other
manufactured products
▪ European governments’ push for permanent
presence along the coast
▪ Encroachment called “informal empire”
Empire Building in Africa
(Part 2)
▪ Imperialist shadow over the Nile
▪ 1869: Construction of the Suez canal
▪ Egypt an informal British protectorate
▪ Weakening of Turkish rule
▪ Arab merchants and European
missionaries in East Africa
▪ Omani Arab ownership of Zanzibar
▪ The slave trade drew Christian missionaries
to the region
Empire Building in Africa
(Part 3)
▪ Bantus, Boers, and British in the South
▪ The British seized the Cape Colony
▪ Boers formed their own independent republics
▪ The Orange Free State and the Transvaal
▪ The Zulus in a series of wars with Europeans
▪ The scramble for Africa
▪ By 1900, virtually all of continent under
European rule
▪ Europeans introduced the “three Cs”:
Christianity, commerce, and civilization
Empire Building in Africa
(Part 4)
▪ Colonialism in Africa
▪ Indirect rule: British goal was to preserve
African political traditions
▪ Direct rule: French sought to assimilate
subjects into French culture
▪ High colonialism
▪ Colonial enterprise viewed as a moral and social
responsibility—a “sacred trust” maintained by the
civilized countries until the Africans became
capable of self-government
Empire Building in Africa
(Part 5)
▪ Women in colonial Africa
▪ Sexual relationships changed profoundly
▪ Attempts to end forced marriage, bodily mutilation
▪ Missionaries introduced Western education
▪ Attitudes of female subordination led to
restrictions on women’s freedom
▪ Positions in government closed to women
Chronology – Imperialism in Africa
Events of Imperialism in Africa Dates
Dutch abolish slave trade in Africa 1795
Napoleon invades Egypt 1798
Slave trade declared illegal in Great Britain 1808
French seize Algeria 1830
Boers’ Great Trek in southern Africa 1830s
Sultan of Oman establishes capital at Zanzibar 1840
David Livingstone arrives in Africa 1841
Slavery abolished in the United States 1863
Suez Canal completed 1869
Zanzibar slave market closed 1873
British establish Gold Coast colony 1874
British establish informal protectorate over Egypt 1881
Berlin Conference on Africa 1884
Charles Gordon killed at Khartoum 1885
Confrontation at Fashoda 1898
Boer War 1899–1902
Casement Commission report on the Belgian Congo 1904
Union of South Africa established 1910
The Emergence of Anticolonialism:
Focus Question
▪ How did the subject peoples respond to
colonialism, and what role did nationalism
play in their response?
The Emergence of Anticolonialism
(Part 1)
▪ Stirrings of nationhood
▪ A product of colonialism and a reaction to it
▪ Traditional resistance: A precursor to
▪ Opposition to colonial rule in Africa
▪ Resistance sporadic and uncoordinated but fierce
▪ The Sepoy Rebellion
▪ Famous uprising against European authority
▪ The path of collaboration
▪ Often motivated by self-interest
The Emergence of Anticolonialism:
(Part 2)
▪ Imperialism: The balance sheet
▪ To defenders, imperialism a disagreeable but
necessary phase in evolution of society
▪ Critics portray imperialism as a tragedy of
major proportions
▪ Colonialisms consequences more complex
than purported by its defenders and its critics
▪ The fundamental weakness of colonialism: It
was ultimately based on the self-interests of
the colonial powers

You Need a Professional Writer To Work On Your Paper?