Modern criminal justice system
Modern criminal justice system
Field: Social Science
APA format. In text citations.
Using the topic or research idea you choose in Week 1 Discussion 2, you will begin your work on Part 1 of this Major Assignment 1. You will begin your search for literature to find three articles that will inform your topic of study from a scholarly perspective.
Research idea is below.
The modern criminal justice system has evolved since ancient times, with new forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms. These developments have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. In ancient times through the middle Ages, exile was a common form of punishment McCammon, L (2001). During the middleAges, payment to the victim (or the victim’s family), known as wergild, was another common punishment, including for violent crimes. For those who could not afford to buy their way out of punishment, harsh penalties included various forms of corporalpunishment. These included mutilation, branding, and flogging, as well as executionSenior, (2007). In the 1920s, police began to professionalize, adopt new technologies, and place emphasis on training and professional qualifications of new hires. Despite such reforms, police agencies were led by highly autocratic leaders, and there remained a lack of respect between police and the community.
Emergency management is the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies preparedness, response, and recovery in order to reduce the harmful effects of all hazards, including disasters Burns, (2012). It is likewise important for emergency management leaders and organizations to understand that because of the scope and severity of emergency situations experienced today involving added grave human-made threats, the rules of the game have changed. The four phases of emergency management (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) are now a matter of multi-actor involvement and collaborative efforts. The emergency situations faced by respective and responsible agencies are to be addressed and indeed, are only addressed, by nonhierarchical and collaborative structures McWilliams, (2012). Today, collaboration and networking in managing emergencies is a theme present in all government and nongovernment entities.
Burns, S., & National Geographic Society (É.-U.). (2012). Natural disasters. États-Unis: National Geographic.
McCammon, L. (2001). Book Review: InfoTrac College Edition: Exercises for Criminal Justice, Internet Activities for Criminal Justice, Internet Guide for Criminal Justice. Criminal Justice Review, 26(1), 113-114. doi:10.1177/073401680102600123
McWilliams, L. (2012). Hypertensive Emergency. Emergency Management in Neurocritical Care, 1-11. doi:10.1002/9781118297162.ch1
Senior, P., Crowther-Dowey, C., & Long, M. (2007). Understanding modernisation in criminal justice. Maidenhead, England: McGraw Hill/Open University Press.
To prepare for this Assignment:
· Review the Major Assignment 1: Developing a Research Topic for a Qualitative Study Assignment Overview and Guidelines and follow the format and guidelines in this document to create your Major Assignment 1.
· Use the Course Guide and Assignment Help to search and select three articles related to your personal topic of study and include one literature review or meta-analysis article, one theory article, and one research article. The research article may either be from a quantitative or qualitative perspective. This will begin your annotated bibliography that will contribute to your topic of study for the final Major Assignment 1.
For this week, you will work on Part 1 of this Major Assignment.
· Create a title page for your Major Assignment 1. Use the Major Assignment 1: Developing a Research Topic for a Qualitative Study Assignment Overview and Guidelines for proper formatting of your paper.
· Write a problem statement based on your topic of study. Develop a 1- to 2-paragraph statement that is the result of a review of the articles you located on your topic.
1. Briefly describe the phenomena you are interested in studying.
2. Briefly summarize the key findings or what is understood about this phenomenon based on the three articles you reviewed.
3. Briefly identify the “gap”—what do you see as an important, relevant, next step in learning more about this topic that would be appropriate for a qualitative study.
· Include your Annotated Bibliography section.
Assignment is below.
Emergency and criminal incidents are characterized by several factors that may hinder or prevent effective response for managing vexing problems faced in such a situation. First, during crisis emergency managers face circumstances that create uncertainty in roles and responsibilities, contextual knowledge, or situational awareness. Second, emergency managers are hard-pressed for time and are required to respond and react quickly due to the severity and importance of the emergency situation. The devastating consequences of disasters and crises such as casualties, damage to people and property, and so forth make it imperative to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters in the most effective and timely manner. Finally, emergency situations require fast and frugal decision making by emergency managers Gigerenzer, (1999), which means that critical decisions are made under time pressure and uncertainty.
In addition to the traditional characteristics of disasters pertaining usually to natural calamities, it is likewise important for emergency management leaders and organizations to understand that because of the scope and severity of emergency situations experienced today involving added grave human-made threats, the rules of the game have changed. The four phases of emergency management (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) are now a matter of multi-actor involvement and collaborative efforts Comfort, (1999). The emergency situations faced by respective and responsible agencies are to be addressed—and indeed, are only addressed, by nonhierarchical and collaborative structures Klijn, (2007). Criminal Justice is the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Criminal justice is also a field of study. Those accused of crime have some protections against abuse of investigatory and prosecution powers.
Boin, A., ‘t Hart, P., Stern, E., & Sundelius, B. (n.d.). Sense making: grasping crises as they unfold. The Politics of Crisis Management, 18-41. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511490880.002
Comfort, L. K. (1999). Emergent Adaptive Systems. Shared Risk, 119-158. doi:10.1016/b978-008043211-3/50029-6
Gigerenzer, G., Czerlinski, J., & Martignon, L. (1999). How Good are Fast and Frugal Heuristics? Decision Science and Technology, 81-103. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5089-1_6
Kickert, W., Klijn, E., & Koppenjan, J. (n.d.). Managing Networks in the Public Sector: Findings and Reflections. Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector, 167-191. doi:10.4135/9781446217658.n10
Running Themes in Criminal Justice. (n.d.). Criminal Justice Criminal justice, 16-18. doi:10.4135/9781446212127.n7
In Part 1 of your Major Assignment 1, you examined a problem and created a problem statement for your topic of study. You also began your research to support the problem you identified. For this week, you will work on Part 2 where you will write your purpose statement, a justification for your qualitative study, and your research question.
To prepare for this Assignment:
· Review the Learning Resources related to research design and methods.
· Review the Detailed Major Assignment 1 Guidelines for proper formatting of your paper.
· Use the Course Guide and Assignment Help to continue your search for the three articles related to your personal topic of study. You will need one literature review meta-analysis article, one theory article, and one research article. The research article may either be from a quantitative or qualitative perspective. (Note: You previously used this research article for your Discussion 2 in Week 3.)
· You will continue your work on your Annotated Bibliography that will contribute to your research topic for the final Assignment.
· Write a purpose statement using terminology of qualitative research. The purpose statement should contain:
1. A statement using the following template: The purpose of this qualitative study is to[choose one: explore, describe, understand, explain] the meaning/experience/culture/stories of [phenomenon of interest] in [population/setting].
2. A justification of why the purpose of your study is suited for the qualitative approach in terms of:
· The phenomena you choose
· The “fit” with a constructivist epistemology and ontology
· The relevance of the naturalistic setting or context to the phenomena of interest
Based on your knowledge of reflexivity, explain your relationship to the problem; and the issues of bias and positionality to be addressed. Include a brief description of the setting and possible sources of data.
· Write a research question using terminology of qualitative research. (Note: This could be the same research question you created in your Discussion 1 for this week ONLY if it applies to your topic of study for this Assignment.) The research question should incorporate and mirror the purpose statement using the following template: What is the meaning/experience/culture/stories of [phenomenon of interest] in [population/setting] ?
· Include your updated Annotated Bibliography section.