Finding avogadros number experimentally
Finding avogadros number experimentally
Academic Level: High School
Volume of 8 pages (2200 words)
Assignment type : Lab Report
AP/IB Lab Report Format
IB Students: are required to submit their portfolio of investigations (also called the internal assessment or practical scheme of work) for moderation (reexamination by an outside source). Therefore, graded labs and instructions must remain in a notebook in the classroom – to be sent somewhere in the world in April of your second year in the IB program. The 4/PSOW form serves as a summary of your graded work. Your portfolio of investigations will have completed 4/PSOW form at the beginning, a table of contents, and numbered pages. For HL IB Biology, the practical scheme of work requires about 60 hours of lab (this doesn’t include write-up) over 2 years. An interdisciplinary project, the “Group 4 Project” must be completed and constitute about 10 lab hours. A final summative mark (grade) that I give you for the internal assessment will reflect the level you have reached; it is not an average. Also, the final summative mark (grade) will include my assessment of three additional criteria – Manipulative skills & Personal skills (a) and (b)
AP Students: should keep all reports. On rare occasions, colleges have asked to see the lab reports to determine college credit.
What is Experimentation About?
You have fiddled with your subjects and determined a question worth investigating. Then you developed a hypothesis that you tested. In the process you may have adjusted your ideas until you eventually collected data that could answer either your original question or a modification of it. During your procedure you chose a variable and watched for a response to it. You tried to decide what other factors might detract from the meaning of your collected data. You controlled these detractor factors. Because you collected some numeric data, you will be able to transform the data to search for more meaning. You will then draw conclusions and evaluate the quality of both the data and the procedure of the experiment. NOW you need to report this process in a formal way:
I. LAB REPORT FORMAT
Before you begin writing, do the following things:
(1) Get the notes that you took in this class
(2) Get notes you took as you planned and performed the experiment
(3) Read through this page and talk with your partners about what you think needs to be included in each section of the report–make notes if you want to do so. Once you begin writing, the work should be your own individual best effort.
• All final reports must be typed (except for the recording of raw data).
• Raw data and observations must be recorded as neatly as possible in blue/black ink when you are doing lab work. If you type your data later for the final report, attach the raw data and observations recorded in lab as an addendum. If you record a number in error, mark through it with 1 line (no erasures or whiteout).
• Include chemical reactions in the report, where applicable.
• Do not write in 1st person singular (don’t use ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘he’, etc…Example of an appropriate statement: The acid was added to the beaker.)
• In your reports, be sure to give references as needed
• Heading of first page: write NAME, DATE, & IB # in right-hand corner
Elements of the formal report:
Whenever you are writing a formal lab report, this format is your default format. Sometimes there will be additional expectations that attend an individual assignment. This report is to be written in sections as indicated below using the language forms indicated.
* * * * * * *
BACKGROUND OR INTRODUCTION
• Explains observations, information given in class, and previous information that led you to your question. You may include reasons for raising the question. If you changed the question during the course of the experiment, because of what happened or failed to happen, discuss the shift in this section. Write this section in paragraph form.
• Write your question in its final form. Use the interrogative form.
• Explain how what you knew led you to your experimental design. Explain your assumptions and reasoning but not the details of your steps. Specifically describe the factors that are to be controlled. Describe what you will watch, measure and use as your criterion. Describe independent and dependent variables. If there was a shift of questions discussed above, your hypothesis is to speak to the hypothesis that goes with your final question. Conclude your discussion of the hypothesis with a conditional statement of your working hypothesis (“If…, then…” statement relating independent and dependent variables)
• List all materials (not in sentence format)
• Describe the steps that you took as a set of numbered statements. Explain adjustments that you made and the conditions that prompted these adjustments. Make your description sufficiently clear that I could repeat your experiment and get the same results that you got.
• Be certain to include quantities, dimensions, and other measurements that would be helpful to a person trying to repeat your results.
• Procedural steps should be numbered and make use of an economy of words.
• Note any safety concerns.
• Specifically describe the factors that needed to be controlled including how control was achieved. What factors did you monitor? If this is well covered in your hypothesis or background, do not repeat yourself.
• Draw a diagram of the experimental plan and refer to the diagram in your description.
• Consists of 2 parts: (label & write each individually)
(a) Data Collection & Presentation:
• Data collected may be quantitative or qualitative
• Express the raw data by using a data chart. Be careful to report only what was observed (even if unexpected), expressing the observation in measurable terms.
• Data tables should be properly formatted with title, labels on columns and rows, and units.
• Record uncertainties in your measurements
• Attach raw data to end of report (state that there is an attachment in your report)
(b) Data Processing & Presentation:
• Show the transformations of this raw data that you used to bring meaning to your observations.
• To assist you in your interpretation, you may want to process your data by finding averages, % changes, rates, ranges, or medians or modes to see if any patterns pop out.
• If the data can be expressed in the form of a graph, do so. Diagrams may be used. All graphs, tables, etc. should be clearly labeled (axes, title, units), points should be clearly plotted; graphs may be neatly hand drawn on graph paper, but I highly recommend you do them on Excel
• Calculations and other transformations should be placed in your paper in an easy to follow manner according to the style requirements of the transformations you have chosen. Show at least one sample calculation of each type
• Make comparisons, note trends
• Discuss how your results answer the question in terms of your hypothesis.
• Discuss sources of error and the limitations of your conclusions. Resolve any alterations in the question or hypothesis sections. In this section you are evaluating your data and its interpretation. Write this section in paragraph form.
• Where applicable, compare experimentally determined results with literature value; note reference
• Where applicable, calculate % error
• Review and evaluate the procedures you used. Explain how the procedure was successful as well as how the procedures may have led to error. Suggest modifications to the design of the procedure that would have led to more reliable results and greater validity of conclusions. Write this section in paragraph form.
Lab reports will be evaluated according to 8 assessment criteria. Not all criteria will be assessed for all labs. For each evaluated criterion, you will be awarded 0-3 points. Attached is a sample grade sheet outlining the criteria for each category and the achievement matrix for determining point values. The point values will be recorded on the 4/PSOW form at the end of your 2nd year.
The teacher will use this grid for assessing a report for IB criteria when it is turned in
hypothesis Pl (b)
procedure DC DPP CE MS PS (a)
team PS (b)
In addition, a class grade will also be given based on your ability to apply the processes for each IB criteria and timely completion of the report. The grade will be entered in my gradebook for averaging to determine term grades.