Question 1: (Analyzing using cumulative knowledge): In week 1, we learned about the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. This week, we have learned about transcription and translation. Use what you have learned thus far in this class to explain why antibiotics are effective at treating bacterial infections without affecting our cells. Include an example of an antibiotic in your answer. What does the antibiotic inhibit and why doesn’t this inhibition affect human cells?
Question 2a-d (Understanding): In various biotechnology applications, double stranded DNA is often denatured (separated) into single strands by heating to near-boiling temperatures. Once denatured, either strand can be used as a template for the synthesis of complementary nucleic acids. Determine which of the two sequences below will denature more rapidly. Start by writing the complementary DNA sequence for each:
a. 5′ – TTA TTC GTT CAT TAT – 3′
b. 5′- GGC GCT AGC GCT TAA – 3′
c. Looking at the 2 dsDNA sequences (once you have completed a-b) above, which will denature most rapidly? Please explain your reasoning in a few sentences.
d. Are any of the DNA sequences above complementary to an mRNA that can be translated into protein? If so, please write the mRNA sequence and polypeptide below.
Question 3 (Applying): Viruses have different types of genomes; some are double-stranded (ds) and some are single-stranded (ss) RNA or DNA. Bacteriophages are dsDNA viruses that infect bacteria such as E. coli. Given this information, would you expect the percent adenine to equal the percentage of thymine and percent guanine to equal the percentage of cytosine in the viral genome? Explain.